Accueil / Recette Italienne / Pâtes / Lasagne à la napolitaine
lasagne a la napolitaine recette

Lasagne à la napolitaine

La délicieuse recette de lasagne napolitaine qu’il me régale de préparer.

Ingrédients pour 6 personnes


  • 1 branche de céleri
  • 1 carotte
  • 1 petit oignon
  • 125 g de parmesan
  • 15 cl de vin rouge
  • 2 boîtes de tomates pelées
  • 2 c. à s. de persil
  • 2 gousses d’ail
  • 3 c. à s. d’huile d’olive
  • 4 c. à s. de concentré de tomate
  • 500 g de lasagnes sèches
  • 60 g de pancetta
  • 600 g d’haché de boeuf
  • 625 g de mozzarella
  • 750 g de ricotta
  • gros sel et sel fin
Recettes de lasagne italienne

Préparation de la lasagne napolitaine :

  1. Ciselez le persil.
  2. Epluchez et coupez la carotte en fines rondelles.
  3. Pelez, émincez le céleri, l’ail et l’oignon.
  4. Détaillez la pancetta.
  5. Egouttez, épépinez les tomates pelées. Conservez le jus.
  6. Dans un faitout, plongez les lasagnes dans 5 l d’eau bouillante salée pendant 10 min.
  7. Réservez 10 cl d’eau de cuisson.
  8. Egouttez et rafraîchissez-les sous l’eau froide.
  9. Mixez la ricotta avec l’eau de cuisson.
  10. Tranchez la mozzarelle en fines lamelles.
  11. Dans une sauteuse, faites dorer à l’huile d’olive la pancetta hachée. Ajoutez le persil, la carotte, le céleri, l’ail et l’oignon.
  12. Continuez la cuisson pendant 12 min.
  13. Ajoutez la viande hachée. Salez.
  14. Mélangez et laissez cuire pendant 10 min.
  15. Incorporez le concentré de tomate et le vin rouge. Laissez mijoter 5 min.
  16. Ajoutez les tomates en conserve et le jus.
  17. Couvrez et continuez la cuisson une heure.
  18. Préchauffez le four à 180°
  19. Tapissez de sauce à la viande le fond d’un plat à gratin.
  20. Couvrez d’une couche de lasagnes.
  21. Etalez la ricotta.
  22. Saupoudrez de parmesan.
  23. Répartissez une couche de sauce.
  24. Parsemez de mozzarelle.
  25. Répétez sans cesse et terminez par une couche de sauce à la viande, des lamelles de mozzarelle et du parmesan râpé.
  26. Enfournez à four chaud pendant 25 min.
  27. Dorez 5 min. avant la fin de la cuisson sous le gril.

296 commentaires

  1. I wanted to send you the very little remark to finally thank you the moment again over the spectacular techniques you have shared on this page. This has been simply surprisingly open-handed with you to offer unhampered what most of us would’ve offered for sale for an ebook to help make some money on their own, precisely seeing that you might have tried it in case you desired. Those tactics in addition worked to become good way to realize that some people have the identical keenness similar to my personal own to realize significantly more when it comes to this matter. I believe there are several more pleasant sessions up front for people who scan through your site.

  2. I am commenting to let you know of the fantastic encounter my cousin’s daughter experienced reading your site. She even learned many issues, not to mention what it’s like to have a wonderful giving mindset to have many people quite simply grasp chosen grueling subject areas. You really exceeded our expectations. Many thanks for giving the informative, healthy, educational and as well as easy thoughts on the topic to Jane.

  3. viagra vs tadalafil – tadalafil buy online tadalafil cheap tadalafil

  4. buy tadalafil generic – buying tadalafil online safely tadalafil generic online

  5. finasteride propecia – avodart vs propecia

  6. amoxicillin reactions amoxicillin capsules 500mg price in india will amoxicillin help a sinus infection amoxicillin and birth control how long to wait

  7. propecia frontal – propecia 5mg online finasteride for women

  8. lasix gout lasix uk what type of diuretic is lasix where can i buy diuretic lasix

  9. zithromax pediatric dosage zithromax 500mg over the counter azithromycin over the counter alternative what is azithromycin tablets usp 250 mg used for

  10. ivermectin for birds ivermectin online where to buy ivermectin for goats how much ivermectin for horses does a human take

  11. tadalafil 5 mg – tadalafil prices

  12. ventolin inhaler cost ventolin tablet albuterol cfc free 90 mcg inh what does albuterol sulfate treat

  13. where can i buy viagra over the counter how much is viagra
    best place to buy viagra online

  14. cheap ed pills erection pills online
    cheap ed pills from india

  15. order ed pills cheap ed pills from canada
    ed pills online

  16. top ed drugs cheap ed pills
    buy ed pills from canada

  17. Mrswrs – lasix 40 mg Henoml qrpfpd

  18. buy keftab online: order ciplox
    omnicef online

  19. reputable online pharmacies in india: overseas pharmacies shipping to usa order prescription drugs from india

  20. all generic meds from india: reputable online pharmacies in india best india pharmacy

  21. kamagra pills: erectile dysfunction pills

  22. cialis pills: viagra pills

  23. mail order erectile dysfunction pills: mail order erectile dysfunction pills

  24. We’re a bunch of volunteers and starting a brand new scheme in our
    community. Your web site provided us with valuable info
    to work on. You’ve done an impressive task and our whole community will probably be grateful to you.
    asmr 0mniartist

  25. how to get viagra: viagra online without prescription viagra without a doctor prescription usa

  26. 100mg viagra: viagra without a doctor prescription buy viagra online without prescription

  27. Fantastic web site. A lot of useful information here.
    I am sending it to several friends ans additionally sharing in delicious.
    And certainly, thank you in your sweat! asmr 0mniartist

  28. Have you ever considered writing an ebook or guest authoring on other sites?
    I have a blog based upon on the same topics you discuss and would really like
    to have you share some stories/information. I know my readers would enjoy your
    work. If you are even remotely interested, feel free to shoot me an email.
    0mniartist asmr

  29. clomid online: clomid for sale – order clomid

  30. It’s going to be end of mine day, but before finish I am reading this enormous piece of writing to
    increase my know-how. 0mniartist asmr

  31. amoxicillin without rx: amoxicillin price without insurance – amoxicillin 500mg no prescription

  32. Greetings! I’ve been reading your blog for a while now and finally got the courage to
    go ahead and give you a shout out from Dallas Texas!
    Just wanted to tell you keep up the good work! 0mniartist asmr

  33. amoxicillin 500mg pill: over counter antibiotics pills amoxicillin – amoxicillin 500 mg tablets

  34. 875 mg amoxicillin cost: cheap amoxicillin – amoxicillin 500mg

  35. tadacip 10 mg – tadacip 20 uk buy tadacip 10 mg

  36. propecia 1mg generic: finasterid – buy propecia cheap
    buy ventolin online usa

  37. ventolin 100: cheap ventolin –
    ventolin 200 mg

  38. generic for celebrex 200 mg – celebrexxl celecoxib tablet

  39. generic for ventolin: buy cheap ventolin – buying ventolin online
    ventolin uk prescription

  40. ivermectin 0.1 uk – cost of stromectol buy stromectol uk

  41. cheap valtrex 1000 mg: valtrex 500 mg tablet cost – valtrex price uk
    ventolin rx

  42. propecia hair: propecia for sale – buy propecia usa
    ventolin for sale online

  43. can you buy nexium over the counter uk – zofran tablets uk topamax pill

  44. tadalafil: tadalafil 20mg for sale – buy tadalafil
    ventolin 2mg tablet

  45. deltasone without script online in mexico – buy deltasone no prescription buy prednisone no prescription

  46. erection pills that work
    best ed pills

  47. ed drugs compared
    cheap erectile dysfunction

  48. naturally like your web-site but you need to take a look at the spelling on quite a
    few of your posts. Many of them are rife with spelling issues
    and I to find it very bothersome to inform the truth then again I’ll definitely
    come back again.

  49. viagra discount prices – viagra alternative average price of 100mg viagra

  50. Hey there I am so excited I found your blog, I really found you by accident, while
    I was looking on Aol for something else, Anyways I am here now
    and would just like to say thanks a lot for a remarkable
    post and a all round thrilling blog (I also love the theme/design), I
    don’t have time to read through it all at the moment
    but I have saved it and also added your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be
    back to read a lot more, Please do keep up the awesome job.

  51. best online pharmacy reddit ed drugs – canadianpharmacyworld
    capsule online pharmacy

  52. Pretty section of content. I just stumbled upon your weblog and
    in accession capital to assert that I acquire
    in fact enjoyed account your blog posts. Anyway I will be
    subscribing to your augment and even I achievement you
    access consistently quickly.

  53. lyrica online canada – lyrica 75 mg pill

  54. Great beat ! I would like to apprentice even as you amend your website, how can i subscribe for a weblog web site?
    The account helped me a appropriate deal. I were tiny bit acquainted of this your broadcast offered brilliant clear

  55. secure medical online pharmacy ed drugs – mail order pharmacy india
    reliable rx pharmacy

  56. viagra from canada – viagra without a doctor prescription

  57. nexium prices in canada – 40 mg nexium generic nexium otc coupon

  58. – where to buy viagra online in australia Ioooobv

  59. levitra medication – cipla generic levitra

  60. stromectol tablet 3 mg – ivermectin 1 cream generic stromectol sales

  61. ivermectin generic – buy ivermectin buy ivermectin canada

  62. buy cialis tadalafil uk erectile dysfunction pills – generic cialis canadian
    how to buy cialis online uk

  63. ondansetron 8mg tablets – ondansetron 4 ondansetron 4 mg buy online

  64. generic cialis 20 mg tadalafil buy cialis in miami – can i buy cialis in uk
    buy cialis online viagra

  65. Hi, I do believe this is an excellent website. I stumbledupon it ;
    ) I may revisit yet again since I saved as a favorite
    it. Money and freedom is the best way to change, may you be rich and continue to guide other

  66. My developer is trying to persuade me to move to .net
    from PHP. I have always disliked the idea because of the expenses.
    But he’s tryiong none the less. I’ve been using Movable-type on a variety of websites for about a year and am nervous
    about switching to another platform. I have heard great
    things about Is there a way I can import all my wordpress
    content into it? Any help would be really appreciated!

  67. cheap viagra without subscription viagra without a doctor prescription

  68. fastest delivery of generic cialis cialis sale 20mg – buy cialis tadalafil tablets
    buy cialis 36 hour online

  69. cialis 20mg for sale erectile dysfunction medications – buy cialis very cheap prices fast delivery
    generic cialis 20 mg tadalafil

  70. buy cialis drug ed pills – order original cialis online
    cost of tadalafil without insurance

  71. cheapest generic cialis australia erectile dysfunction medications – cialis 20 mg cost
    buy cialis very cheap prices fast delivery

  72. Hello there! Do you know if they make any plugins to protect
    against hackers? I’m kinda paranoid about losing everything I’ve worked
    hard on. Any recommendations?

  73. buy cialis tadalafil tablets erectile dysfunction pills – buy cheap cialis overnight
    buy cialis insurance

  74. Really no matter if someone doesn’t understand after that its up to other viewers that they
    will assist, so here it occurs.

  75. buy cialis insurance ed drugs – buy cialis insurancecialis online without prescription
    cheap generic cialis

  76. Thank you for sharing your thoughts. I really appreciate your efforts and I will be waiting for your further post thanks once again.

  77. stromectol ivermectin kills what parasites

  78. п»їhow much does cialis cost with insurance ed pills – buy cialis online at lowest price
    taking cialis soft tabs

  79. online viagra viagra for sale – viagra without a doctor prescription
    buy viagra online

  80. ivermectin for humans for sale ivermectin for humans for sale

  81. viagra without a doctor prescription usa buy generic viagra online – viagra price
    viagra generic

  82. stromectol for humans – stromectol drug stromectol tablets buy online

  83. female viagra viagra for sale – buy viagra
    viagra professional

  84. viagra cost online viagra – blue pill viagra
    viagra canada

  85. ivermectin cream reputable indian online pharmacy

  86. cialis soft tablet: buy cialis cheap canada cialis sale 20mg
    buy cialis online at lowest price

  87. drug plavix 75 mg – buy clopidogrel 75 mg uk how much is plavix in canada

  88. cialis 20 mg cost: buy cialis tadalafil uk buy cialis shipping canada
    cialis 20mg for sale

  89. how to buy cialis online uk: buy cialis online europe buy cialis drug
    buy cialis tadalafil uk

  90. scoliosis
    For latest news you have to pay a quick visit the web and
    on world-wide-web I found this web site as a finest web page for hottest updates.

  91. ivermectin ivermectin for humans for sale cvs

  92. cialis without presciption in usa: cost of tadalafil without insurance how to get ciails without a doctor
    cialis in europe

  93. ed pump – buy medication to treat erectile dysfunction managing contraceptive pill patients 15th ed

  94. canadian pharmacy cialis 20mg: where can i buy cialis without a prescription cialis online without prescription
    cialis for daily use

  95. buy cialis insurancecialis online without prescription: find cheap cialis online where can u buy cialis
    buy cialis united kingdom

  96. scoliosis
    Hey I am so thrilled I found your web site, I really found you by
    mistake, while I was browsing on Google for something else, Anyhow I am here
    now and would just like to say thanks for a remarkable post and a all round entertaining blog (I
    also love the theme/design), I don’t have time to read
    it all at the moment but I have bookmarked it and also added in your
    RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read
    a lot more, Please do keep up the fantastic work. scoliosis

  97. levothyroxine 100 mcg ventolin inhaler dosage

  98. generic ventolin inhalers for sale albuterol nebulizer dosage

  99. lisinopril 0.5 mg: lisinopril 30 mg cost – buy lisinopril 20 mg online uk

  100. roman ed pills reddit – top over the counter ed pills natural pill that help with ed

  101. lisinopril medication: zestoretic 5 mg – where can i order lisinopril online

  102. buy stromectol pills: ivermectin australia – ivermectin syrup

  103. cost of ivermectin lotion: buy ivermectin – ivermectin for sale

  104. men’s ed pills: cheap erectile dysfunction pill – treatment of ed

  105. qbsu11 wjnbnek stromectol 3 mg tablets price

  106. dating sites
    What a information of un-ambiguity and preserveness of precious experience on the topic of unexpected feelings.
    free dating sites

  107. cialis 20mg for sale: buy cialis online best price buy cialis drug
    buy cialis 36 hour online

  108. dating sites
    Woah! I’m really loving the template/theme of this website.
    It’s simple, yet effective. A lot of times it’s very difficult to get that « perfect balance » between user friendliness and visual appeal.
    I must say you have done a great job with this.
    In addition, the blog loads super quick for
    me on Chrome. Exceptional Blog! dating sites

  109. buy cialis now: where can u buy cialis buy cialis 36 hour

  110. generic cialis 20 mg tadalafil: cialis original for sale buy cialis toronto
    safe buy cialis

  111. buy cialis online cheap: where can u buy cialis cialis soft tablet

  112. An intriguing discussion is definitely worth comment.

    I do think that you should publish more on this subject matter, it might not be
    a taboo matter but generally people do not talk about such issues.
    To the next! All the best!!

  113. venta de viagra – viagra online comprar viagra valencia

  114. buy cialis tadalafil tablets: buy cialis cheaper online buy cialis ebay

  115. buy cialis online generic: canadian pharmacy cialis 20mg buy cialis philippines

  116. Auqnsko nkwlaj generic viagra for sale

  117. bactrim 40 mg – purchase bactrim bactrim ds without prescription

  118. buy cialis philippines: cialis 20 mg cost buy cialis online generic

  119. viagra without doctor prescription buy viagra pills – over the counter alternative to viagra

  120. buy viagra order viagra without prescription – viagra for women

  121. over the counter alternative to viagra buy viagra order – generic viagra 100mg

  122. buy cialis online at lowest price – cialis without prescriptions canada buy cialis in miami

  123. buy cialis generic online – cialis super active vs professional order cialis online uk

  124. buy cialis very cheap prices fast delivery – cialis 20 mg cost buy cialis online viagra

  125. cialis 20 mg cost – buy cialis in miami buy cialis in miami

  126. Hi I am so excited I found your blog, I really found you by error,
    while I was browsing on Bing for something else, Nonetheless I am here now and would
    just like to say many thanks for a tremendous post and a all round interesting blog
    (I also love the theme/design), I don’t have time to browse it all at the moment but I have
    book-marked it and also added your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will
    be back to read a great deal more, Please do keep up the fantastic b.

  127. I could not refrain from commenting. Perfectly written!

  128. free viagra free viagra – buy viagra online without a prescription

  129. how long does viagra last real viagra without a doctor prescription – viagra coupon

  130. order original cialis online buy cialis 36 hour online cialis original for sale

  131. cialis 20 price – generic cialis super active 20mg buy cialis south africa

  132. buy cialis very cheap prices fast delivery: buy cialis now find cheap cialis online

  133. cheap generic cialis cialis tadalafil portugal buy cialis 36 hour online

  134. We’re a group of volunteers and opening a
    new scheme in our community. Your website provided us with valuable info to work on. You have done a formidable job and our entire community will be grateful
    to you.

  135. If you want to get much from this piece of writing then you
    have to apply these techniques to your won web site.

  136. buy cialis 36 hour online: fastest delivery of generic cialis how to buy cialis online uk

  137. Hi there! I understand this is sort of off-topic but I needed to ask.
    Does building a well-established website like yours require a lot
    of work? I’m brand new to operating a blog however I do write in my diary everyday.
    I’d like to start a blog so I can share my own experience and feelings online.
    Please let me know if you have any kind of suggestions or tips for new aspiring blog
    owners. Appreciate it!

  138. cheap generic cialis where can i buy cialis without a prescription canadian pharmacy cialis 20mg

  139. What i don’t understood is actually how you’re now not
    actually a lot more neatly-liked than you might be now.

    You’re so intelligent. You realize thus significantly when it comes to this matter, produced me individually
    believe it from numerous numerous angles. Its like men and women aren’t
    involved until it is one thing to accomplish with Lady gaga!

    Your own stuffs nice. At all times take care of it up!

  140. duloxetine 20 mg price – cymbalta drug duloxetine in mexico

  141. Oyhkfex viagra without a doctor prescription

  142. buy cialis online viagra much does cialis cost without insurance buy cialis 36 hour

  143. Ibputuu best canadian online pharmacies

  144. Very rapidly this site will be famous amid all blogging and site-building visitors,
    due to it’s pleasant articles or reviews

  145. hello there and thank you for your info – I have definitely picked up something
    new from right here. I did however expertise
    a few technical points using this web site, since I experienced to reload
    the site lots of times previous to I could get it to load
    properly. I had been wondering if your web host
    is OK? Not that I am complaining, but sluggish loading instances times will
    very frequently affect your placement in google and
    can damage your high-quality score if advertising and marketing with Adwords.
    Anyway I’m adding this RSS to my email and can look out for a
    lot more of your respective interesting content. Ensure that you update this again very soon.

  146. buy cialis ebay cialis soft tablet buy cialis very cheap prices fast delivery

  147. It’s fantastic that you are getting ideas
    from this piece of writing as well as from our
    dialogue made at this time.

  148. levothyroxine tabs 50mcg – generic levothyroxine prices buy synthroid

  149. ordering cialis online australia: generic cialis 20 mg tadalafil buy cialis online viagra

  150. Hello! I just would like to give you a big thumbs up for
    the great information you have here on this post. I will be returning to your
    website for more soon.

  151. buy cialis united kingdom how to buy cialis online uk order original cialis online

  152. valtrex pills over the counter cheap valtrex – valtrex 500 india

  153. If some one wishes to be updated with latest technologies then he must be pay a visit this site and
    be up to date every day.

  154. generic valtrex from india valtrex tablet – valtrex pills over the counter

  155. Hello to every , because I am genuinely eager of
    reading this web site’s post to be updated on a
    regular basis. It includes pleasant material.

  156. amoxicillin 500 mg purchase without prescription amoxicillin without rx – buy amoxicillin 250mg

  157. walmart price for amoxicillin – can you buy amoxicillin over the counter buy amoxicilin 500 mg online

  158. generic for wellbutrin xl generic wellbutrin – wellbutrin online pharmacy

  159. erectile dysfunction treatment erectile dysfunction pills – reasons for ed

  160. qfqdwc buy cialis online with mastercard

  161. buy ed drugs ed meds online without doctor prescription – the canadian drugstore

  162. price of valtrex without insurance valtrex tablet – valtrex prescription canada

  163. I know this website provides quality depending articles or reviews and other data, is there any other web
    site which provides these kinds of data in quality?

  164. vardenafil generic brand – vardenafil tablets levitra canada

  165. valtrex 500mg cost valtrex – valtrex price uk

  166. valtrex 250 mg 500 mg generic valtrex – valtrex 500 india

  167. Icznmlp viagra without dr prescription

  168. buy generic wellbutrin online wellbutrin 100 mg – buy generic wellbutrin online

  169. amoxicillin 775 mg amoxicillin capsules 250mg – amoxicillin 500mg buy online canada

  170. how to order valtrex online valtrex no prescription price – valtrex over the counter australia

  171. viagra vs cialis vardenafil cost – buy cheap vardenafil buy levitra online

  172. best erectile dysfunction pills treatments for ed – best non prescription ed pills

  173. trusted canadian pharmacy online pharmacy no prescription – canadian pharmacy levitra

  174. antibiotic therapy flagyl antibiotic – can you buy amoxicillin over the counter in canada

  175. amoxicillin pharmacy price best antibiotic for tooth infection – buying bactrim antibiotic online

  176. doxycycline hyc 100mg keflex antibiotic – doxycycline online

  177. zyrtec d 24 hour benadryl mexico – where can i buy periactin

  178. tadalafil 20mg from canada – cialis brand name in india cialis once a day

  179. order septra online buy antibiotic – zithromax online

  180. medications without doctor’s prescription

  181. ed meds online without doctor prescription ed pills for sale – ed remedies

  182. Oasykwt Ieqkeht viagra over counter usa

  183. legitimate canadian online pharmacies online pharmacy no prescription – canadianpharmacymeds

  184. buy ed drugs online: erectile dysfunction treatments causes of ed

  185. how to purchase viagra tablet – how to get viagra get a viagra prescription online

  186. best male enhancement pills: natural ed treat ed

  187. erectial dysfunction erectile dysfunction treatments canadian drug

  188. vardenafil 10mg – vardenafil generic pics buy cheap vardenafil

  189. viagra without a doctor prescription usa – where to buy viagra viagra from india

  190. amoxicillin 500mg capsules treats what

  191. cheap viagra online how much is viagra viagra cost per pill

  192. viagra 100mg price – mexican viagra mexican viagra

  193. viagra cost per pill online doctor prescription for viagra viagra cost per pill

  194. vardenafil 20mg tab – generic vardenafil online order vardenafil online uk

  195. ivermectin 12mg online – stromectol cream stromectol over the counter

  196. Beatrice Hastings

    cialis goodrx tadalafil gel cialis at walmart

  197. cost of 1 birth control pill vs viagra without insurance

  198. where can i buy amoxicillin over the counter buy amoxil – amoxicillin medicine over the counter

  199. generic viagra 25mg sildenafil online prescription viagra fuck

  200. how much is neurontin gabapentin – neurontin 300mg caps

  201. order doxycycline doxycycline – buy cheap doxycycline online

  202. viagra from canada buy real viagra online

  203. generic viagra medication – authentic viagra order viagra uk

  204. viagra for sale no prescription viagra viagra interactions

  205. viagra effet secondaire viagra prix au maroc le viagra est il sur ordonnance viagra combien de temps pour agir

  206. buy chloroquine canada can you buy chloroquine over the counter – aralen

  207. 200 mg doxycycline generic doxycycline – doxycycline online

  208. equivalent viagra medicament viagra pour homme viagra sans ordonnance livraison rapide comment faire un viagra naturel a la maison

  209. baise avec viagra viagra générique sans ordonnance pharmacie qui vend viagra sans ordonnance qu’est ce qui remplace le viagra

  210. generic doxycycline buy doxycycline 100mg – doxycycline hyclate

  211. Hello Dear, are you really visiting this web page regularly, if so after that you will definitely obtain nice knowledge.

  212. prix viagra france comment se procurer du viagra lovely lilith viagra falls 3 ou se procurer du viagra sans ordonnance

  213. can you buy amoxicillin uk purchase amoxicillin online – where can i get amoxicillin

  214. cialis over the counter canada – cialis prescription online canada cheap online tadalafil

  215. cialis cheap cialis 2 5 mg what is the active ingredient in cialis ou acheter le cialis

  216. neurontin 600 mg cost buy gabapentin – buy neurontin 100 mg canada

  217. amoxicillin generic buy amoxil – amoxicillin 1000 mg capsule

Laisser un commentaire

Votre adresse de messagerie ne sera pas publiée. Les champs obligatoires sont indiqués avec *