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Pays producteurs de café : Brésil, Vietnam, Colombie, ….

Le Café, fruit d’enjeux mondiaux sur soucoupe

Saviez-vous que 125.000.000 de personnes vivent de la culture du café ? Que 12.000 tasses de café sont bues chaque seconde ? Que le cours du café a chuté dans le monde lorsque le Vietnam a commencé la production de café Robusta ?

Le petit grain torréfié est un monument dans la tasse de tous les jours et dans l’économie mondiale !

Côté en bourse et cultivé par des populations modestes, le café est la marchandise la plus échangée dans le monde après le pétrole.

Et on s’étonne que le café stimule la réflexiion ?

cafe carte recette
Répartition géographique des différentes cultures
(r : robusta, a : arabica, m : robusta & arabica). source : wikipedia



Le Café, entre tropiques et géopolitique.

Capital équitable ?

La valeur des échanges commerciaux concernant le café est la plus élevée, après le pétrole et devant, par exemple, le fer ! 85 % du marché du café sont contrôlés par des multinationales telles Philippe Morris, propriétaire de marques Jacques Vabre, Grand’Mère, Maxwell (eh oui !) ou Sara Lee (Maison du Café).
Les uns cueillent les cerises de café à la main, les autres ramassent les bénéfices à la pelle ! Lorsqu’on parle de commerce équitable, le café apparait inexorablement. On comprend pourquoi.

Le climat du café

Les différentes variétés de café ont élu domicile entre les deux tropiques et plus précisément entre la latitude nord de 15° et le tropique du cancer. L’altitude est aussi nécessaire au développement des meilleurs cafés. Ils s’affinent avec elle, à condition de trouver température (25°C), ensoleillement, pluie et sols adéquats (de préférence volcanique).

Les cafés Arabica, cultivés en altitude, proviennent esentiellement d’Amérique latine et de certains pays d’Afrique de l’Est.. Les cafés Robusta s’acclimatent à basse altitude. On les trouve entre autres en Côte d’Ivoire, à Madagascar…. et en masse, au Vietnam. Le Vietnam s’est engagé dans la production massive de Robusta à partir du début des années ’90 et est aujourd’hui le second producteur mondial ! La production, entre l’année 80 et l’an 2000, pour avoir une idée… a été multipliée par un facteur CENT !

Les pays producteurs (sans classement)

  • Brésil
  • Côte d’Ivoire
  • Cameroun
  • Jamaïque
  • Colombie
  • Kenya
  • Costa Rica
  • Mexique
  • Equateur
  • Nicaragua
  • El Salvador
  • Pérou
  • Ethiopie
  • Philippines
  • Guatemala
  • Ouganda
  • Honduras
  • Vénezuela
  • Inde
  • Vietnam
  • Indonésie
  • Madagascar

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